האגודה הישראלית לחקר יחסי עבודה

מחקר, הוראה ומדיניות בתחום יחסי העבודה

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  • שרגא ברוש, יו"ר לשכת התאום לארגונים הכלכליים
  • קובי בר-נתן, מ"מ הממונה על השכר במשרד האוצר
  • השופטת ורדה וירט-לבנה, נשיאת בית הדין הארצי לעבודה
  • עו"ד שלמה יצחקי, הממונה הראשי על יחסי עבודה
  • עו"ד אבי ניסנקורן, יו"ר הנהגת ההסתדרות הכללית החדשה

חיפוש מחקרים

Great women of Texas

  • Click to see some of the women who made Texas and the nation what they are today. 
  • Christia Adair
(1893–1989)Adair, an African-American suffragist and civil rights activist, grew up in Victoria and graduated from Prairie View State college, now Prairie View A&M University, then moved with her husband to Houston in 1925. She played a leading role in the desegregation of Houston's libraries, dressing rooms, airport, hospitals and city buses. As executive secretary of the local NAACP, she helped bring a 1944 U.S. Supreme Court case that would allow blacks to vote in political primaries. She was also a precinct judge in Houston's Third Ward, one of the first five blacks to serve as judges in Houston. Photo: Flickr/ Schlesinger Library On The History Of Women In America"/>
  • Annise Parker (1956 - ) Parker became the first openly gay mayor of a major U.S. city with her election in 2010. She was Houston's second female mayor. She grew up in the Houston area and attended Rice University, then worked as a software analyst in oil and gas and was active in the LGBT community. She started her career in public service in 1998 with a place on the city council, then became city controller in 2004. She is now a fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of public policy.  Photo: Elizabeth Conley, Houston Chronicle / © 2015 Houston Chronicle
  • Mary Kay Ash (1918 - 2001)From scratch, she built a multi-million dollar worldwide cosmetics company, Mary Kay Cosmetics. Photo: Bezant; Graham, Getty Images / Toronto Star
  • Kathy Whitmire (1946 - ) Whitmire was the first female mayor of Houston, a seat she held from 1982 to 1992. She is a graduate of the University of Houston and served two terms at the city's controller.  Photo: E. Joseph Deering, Houston Chronicle / Houston Chronicle
  • Barbara Jordan (1936 - 1996)Civil rights activist Barbara Jordan was the first woman ever elected to the Texas Senate. Later, Jordan was the first African-American congresswoman to come from Texas and the South, and she delivered the keynote address at the 1976 Democratic Convention. Photo: Tom Colburn / Houston Chronicle
  • Selena (1971 - 1995)The Queen of Tejano music, Selena Quintanillia Perez drew 61,041 people to her concert at the 1995 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo -- more than Clint Black, George Strait, Vince Gill, or Reba McEntire. Photo: Dave Einsel, Associated Press
  • Janis Joplin (1943-1970) Born and raised in Port Arthur, Joplin began her music career in Austin but moved to San Francisco to escape the rigid cultural restrictions of 1960s Texas. Before she died at the age of 27, Joplin had carved a place for women in rock 'n' roll alongside Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix. She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. Photo: Anonymous, HO / AP1969
  • Miriam A. "Ma" Ferguson (1875 – 1961)Before Ann Richards, there was Miriam A. Ferguson, the first woman governor of Texas. In all of Texas history, there have been two governors who were women: Ferguson and Richards. Photo: KEYSTONE, Getty Images / KEYSTONE-FRANCE
  • Sarah Weddington (1945 - ) According to the New York Times, Weddington wanted to attend law school in part because an adviser at her small college in Abilene told her it would be too difficult for a woman. When she was 26 years old, she argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade, the landmark case that legalized abortion. Later, as a member of the Texas House of Representatives, she helped change a law that forbid women from getting credit cards in their name. She later became general counsel for the Department of Agriculture under President Jimmy Carter and now teaches at the University of Texas at Austin.    Photo: HARRY CABLUCK /AP / AP
  • Ann Richards (1933 - 2006)Richards is one of only two women to serve as governor of Texas. She delivered the keynote address the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Photo: Shelly Katz, Getty Images / Shelly Katz
  • Beyonce Knowles-Carter (1981 - ) Queen B went from performing at children's talent shows in Houston to becoming one of the world's most successful singer, songwriter and producer. Her musical pursuits started at Parker Elementary School, a music magnet school in Houston, and also at the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts. She started the band Destiny's Child before embarking on a solo career. She is one of the best-selling music artists of all time.  Photo: Jaguar PS | Shutterstock.com
  • Angelina Eberly (1798-1860)An Austin innkeeper, Eberly got wind of Sam Houston’s plot to move the capitol of Texas by first taking the federal archives out of Austin. Eberly shot a canon to foil the plan, thus launching the Archive War. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
  • Sen. Judith Zaffirini (1947 - ) is the first Mexican-American woman elected to the Texas Senate. Her most prominent legislative work has focused on immunization for children, suspension of licenses for drunk drivers and prevention of a nuclear waste dump in her district. She graduated the University of Texas at Austin and has been named among the "top 100 most influential Hispanics in the United States" by Hispanic Business magazine.  Photo: Harry Cabluck / AP
  • Molly Ivins (1944 - 2007)Famous for her sharp, political humor, Ivins was an Austin-based widely syndicated newspaper columnist. Photo: CAROLYN MARY BAUMAN, STF / FORT WORTH STAR-TELEGRAM
  • Liz Carpenter (1920 - 2010)Carpenter wrote the statement that Lyndon B. Johnson delivered to the nation shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. She was the press secretary to Lady Bird Johnson and became known for her wry wit. Carpenter was also a founding member of the National Women’s Political Caucus. Photo: Pictorial Parade, Getty Images / 2004 Getty Images
  • Kalpana Chawla (1961-2003) - Born in Karnal, India, Chawla traveled to Texas for graduate school at the University of Texas at Arlington in 1982, earning a masters degree in aeronautical engineering. She would go on to earn a Ph.D. and her U.S. citizenship, before she entered NASA's astronaut training program in Houston in 1995, one of 19 candidates accepted from among almost 3,000 applicants. On her first space shuttle mission, Chawla wrote from space: "In the pre-sleep period, when you're looking out the window, you're floating. You see the continents go by, the thunderstorms shimmering in the clouds, the city lights at night. The Nile River looks like a lifeline in the Sahara. And we looked down on Mount Everest. Earth is very beautiful. I wish everyone could see it."She died on her second mission, when the space shuttle Columbia broke up over Texas as it re-entered Earth's atmosphere. 
  • Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911 - 1956)She’s the greatest Female Athlete of the first half of the 20th century, according to the Associated Press. At a time when female athletes were frowned upon, Zaharias mastered nearly every sport, from basketball to boxing. She qualified for five events in the 1932 Olympics. And while battling cancer, she won her third U.S. Women’s Open in golf and her sixth Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year award. Photo: Underwood Archives, Getty Images / © Underwood Archives
  • Almentris Duren (1910-2001) Duren helped guide black students toward higher education in Texas at a time when society resisted their advancement. The U.S. Supreme Court ordered desegregation of schools in 1954, and Duren became housemother to the first black women allowed at the University of Texas at Austin. Soon she presided over a co-op on the school's campus, one of few places where black students could feel welcome at school at that time. Her writing remains required reading for UT orientation advisers, and a campus building now bears her name. 
  • Ninfa Laurenzo (1924 - 2001) Mama Ninfa turned a business making pizza dough and tortillas on Houston's south side into a multi-million dollar restaurant chain. She and her husband started the dough factory in 1948. When her husband died in 1969, she pressed on and started a small restaurant to help make ends meet in 1973. It only grew from there. Born in Harlingen, a few miles from the Mexican border, she became a symbol of entrepreneurial success for minorities in Houston. Photo: Steve Ueckert, HC Staff / Houston Chronicle
  • Wilhelmina Delaco (1929 - ) Delaco was the first woman appointed speaker pro tempore in the Texas House of Representatives in 1991. She said, "I realized how important it was for women and children, particularly, to walk in that House and see a woman in charge." Her life in politics started as the first African-American elected to the Austin ISD board of trustees, where she helped accelerate school desegregation. She would serve 10 terms in the legislature and sit on more than 20 committees. 
  • Katherine Stinson Otero (1891-1977)She was the fourth woman to pilot an airplane and the first person to fly at night. Photo: William Luther /San Antonio Express-News / © 2015 San Antonio Express-News
  • Lila Cockrell (1922 - ) Cockrell was the first female mayor of San Antonio, a post she held from 1975 to 1981. She also served with a women's emergency volunteer group in the U.S. Navy during World War II. Before taking the mayor's seat, she served on the San Antonio city council from 1963-1970 and from 1973-1975. Photo: Edward A. Ornelas, San Antonio Express-News
  • Bessie Coleman (1892 - 1926)The first black woman to earn a pilot’s license, Coleman was a pioneer in aviation. She died in an accident at the age of 34. Photo: Fotosearch, Getty Images / 2010 Getty Images
  • Wendy Davis (1963 - ) Davis was a member of the Texas Senate, famous for her 11-hour filibuster in 2013, which helped derail a proposed law to limit access to abortions in Texas (the law was passed during a subsequent special session). She then ran for governor and lost but remains active in the Democratic Party. 
  • Bette Graham (1924-1980) Born and raised in San Antonio, she was the inventor and entrepreneur behind Liquid Paper white-out. That, and she raised a son, Michael Nesmith of the Monkeys. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
  • Emma Tenayuca (1916-1999) Born and raised in San Antonio, Tenayuca was a worker on the picket line striking against the Fink Cigar Company when she was first arrested at the age of 16 in 1932. A fierce labor rights activist, Tenayuca led 12,000 San Antonio workers, mostly Hispanic women, in the Pecan-Shellers Strike of 1938 to fight wage cuts and dismal work conditions. A communist, she was blacklisted from San Antonio and could not return until the 1960s.  Photo: Courtesy Photo /UTSA Special Collections / Institute of Texan Cultures
  • Fannie Porter (1873 - 1940)A widely-known madam, Porter ran a popular brothel in San Antonio’s Sporting District. She is known to have entertained the notorious Wild Bunch, the gang led by Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. Photo: "FanniePorter". Licensed Under PD-US Via Wikipedia - Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FanniePorter.jpg#/media/File:FanniePorter.jpg
  • Jane Long (1798-1880) Often referred to as the “mother of Texas,” Long is among the first English-speaking pioneers to give birth in Texas. Widowed at the age of 24, when her husband was killed in Mexico City, Long worked as a single mother, operating a boarding house and developing a plantation, which she ran with the aid of 19 slaves. Photo: University Of North Texas Libraries
  • Lottie Deno (1834 - 1944)Born Carlotta Thompkins, she won fame as Lottie Deno (short for dinero), one of the most well-known gamblers and poker players of her time. Known as the “Angel of San Antonio,” she was the house gambler of the University Club in the 1860s. Photo: Universal History Archive, Getty Images / Universal Images Group Editorial
  • Sarah Bowman (c. 1813 – 1866) Known as the Great Western, Bowman was a legendary camp follower during the Mexican War, tending to soldiers as a laundress, cook, hotelkeeper and prostitute. When she died after moving to Fort Yuma, she was buried with full military honors. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
  • Susana Dickinson (ca 1814-1883)The wife of a Texian defender, Dickinson and her daughter Angelina were among the few, if only, Americans who survived the Battle of the Alamo. With a blanket and $2, “the Lady of the Alamo” was sent to Gonzales with a message from Santa Ana to the Texians that he would crush any resistance. Photo: Wikimedia Commons
  • Clara Driscoll (1881-1945)Dubbed the “Savior of the Alamo,” Driscoll was the businesswoman and philanthropist who first led the Daughters of the Republic of Texas to acquire and preserve the San Antonio de Valero Mission, known as the Alamo. Photo: Courtesy University Of Texas.
  • Adina De Zavala (1861-1955)A fierce preservationist of Texas history, De Zavala organized the Texas Historical and Landmarks Association, led conservation and renovation of the Spanish Governor's Palace and worked with Clara Driscoll to keep the Alamo from being razed for corporate development. Photo: COURTESY OF UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS
  • Margaret Heffernan Borland (1824–1873)Borland took over her husband’s business as an independent rancher after he died and became the only woman known to have led a cattle drive. Buying and selling livestock, she grew the herd to more than 10,000 cattle. Photo: Hero Images, Getty Images / (c)2013 Hero Images Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hallie C. Stillwell (1897 - 1997)Before she died two months shy of her 100th birthday, Stillwell was one of the few women to ever lead a ranch in West Texas. Photo: Getty Images
  • Caro Crawford Brown, (1908 - 2001) She was first Texan and first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in reporting in 1955. She wrote series of articles exposing the virulent corruption of political boss George Parr; it was her fearless reporting that led to his eventual downfall. Brown was inducted into the Texas Women's Hall of Fame in 1986. Photo: The History Center
  • Katherine Anne Porter (1890 – 1980)Because the University of Texas refused to name a library or even a room after the Texas writer who earned a Gold Medal for Fiction, the Pulitzer Prize, and the National Book Award, Porter left her letters, library and personal memorabilia to the University of Maryland. Photo: Hulton Archive, Getty Images
  • Bonnie Parker (1911 -1934)Born in Rowena, the notorious outlaw was hunted by law enforcement for years before she and her boyfriend Clyde Barrow were gunned down in Louisiana when she was 23. The duo, now known as Bonnie and Clyde, went on a years-long rampage of murders and robberies across Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Missouri. Photo: Getty Images
  • Claudia Alva Taylor "Lady Bird" Johnson (1912-2007) Johnson pushed the limits of the role of first lady, interacting directly with Congress, making solo speaking tours and setting a new standard of expectations for her predecessors. A cunning businesswoman and investor, she contributed crucially to the success of her husband, helping run his campaigns and running the finances. She also preached a more beautiful America, promoting successful legislation to limit clutter beside American highways and encouraging cultivation of wild flowers.   Photo: Copyright Photo David Kennedy / handout
  • Oveta Culp Hobby (1905 - 1995) Born in Killeen, Hobby left her post as the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1955 to return to Houston to head up the Houston Post as president and editor. Soon she became chairman of the board of directors of the Bank of Texas. That was the tail end of a long career in business and politics, which also saw her work on a Houston mayor's campaign, work as the city attorney, and as head of the Women's Interest Section at the War Department (now Department of Defense) during WWII. She was married to Texas governor and Houston icon William Hobby.     / handout
  • Dale Evans (1912 - 2001) Born in Uvalde, Evans became a successful singer and actress before making her big break as co-star to cowboy actor Roy Rogers in the 1944 film The Cowboy and the Señorita. Afterwards the pair married and made 27 more films together. The couple adopted four orphaned children, and went on to produce The Roy Rogers Show, which ran 1950-1957 and was an international hit.  Photo: Loomis Dean, Time & Life Pictures/Getty Image
  • Henrietta King (1832 - 1925) King wore widow's black for the last 40 years of her life after her husband, Richard King, died and left her alone with her daughter on the South Texas frontier. She ran the ranch her husband left, learning the folkways of the Mexican ranch hands and speaking primarily Spanish. With the help of her son-in-law, she bred a new cattle suited to the Texas heat and expanded the ranch--King Ranch--into the biggest on the continent. 
  • Kay Bailey Hutchison (1943 - )Hutchinson was the first Texas woman in the U.S. Senate. Before that, she was Houston's first female TV reporter, starting in 1967. Her career took her through the Texas House of Representatives, the administration of President Gerald Ford, a seat as the Texas state treasurer and eventually a seat in the U.S. Senate, from which she retired in 2012.   Photo: Hillery Smith Garrison, The Associated Press / AP
  • Kelly Clarkson (1982 - ), The singer born in Fort Worth, shot to fame when she won the first season of "American Idol" in 2002. She'd sung in school choirs since middle school and starred in musical performances through her teenage years. She declined offers to go to college, opting to pursue music instead. She recorded some albums and went to Los Angeles but never made a multi platinum album until her triumph on the landmark reality TV show. Photo: Victoria Will, INVL / Invision
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    Image 1 of 47
    Click to see some of the women who made Texas and the nation what they are today.
    Click to see some of the women who made Texas and the nation what they are today.
    Image 2 of 47
    Click to see some of the women who made Texas and the nation what they are today. 
    Click to see some of the women who made Texas and the nation what they are today. 
    Image 3 of 47
    Christia Adair (1893–1989)
    Adair, an African-American suffragist and civil rights activist, grew up in Victoria and graduated from Prairie View State college, now Prairie View A&M University, then moved with her husband to Houston in 1925. She played a leading role in the desegregation of Houston's libraries, dressing rooms, airport, hospitals and city buses. As executive secretary of the local NAACP, she helped bring a 1944 U.S. Supreme Court case that would allow blacks to vote in political primaries. She was also a precinct judge in Houston's Third Ward, one of the first five blacks to serve as judges in Houston.
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    Christia Adair (1893–1989)
    Adair, an African-American suffragist and civil rights activist, grew up in Victoria and graduated from Prairie View State college, now Prairie View A&M University, then moved with
    ... more
    Photo: Flickr/ Schlesinger Library On The History Of Women In America
    Image 4 of 47
    Annise Parker (1956 - ) 
    Parker became the first openly gay mayor of a major U.S. city with her election in 2010. She was Houston's second female mayor. She grew up in the Houston area and attended Rice University, then worked as a software analyst in oil and gas and was active in the LGBT community. She started her career in public service in 1998 with a place on the city council, then became city controller in 2004. She is now a fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School of public policy. 
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    Annise Parker (1956 - ) 
    Parker became the first openly gay mayor of a major U.S. city with her election in 2010. She was Houston's second female mayor. She grew up in the Houston area and attended Rice
    ... more
    Photo: Elizabeth Conley, Houston Chronicle
    Image 5 of 47
    Mary Kay Ash (1918 - 2001)
    From scratch, she built a multi-million dollar worldwide cosmetics company, Mary Kay Cosmetics.
    Mary Kay Ash (1918 - 2001)
    From scratch, she built a multi-million dollar worldwide cosmetics company, Mary Kay Cosmetics.
    Photo: Bezant; Graham, Getty Images
    Image 6 of 47
    Kathy Whitmire (1946 - ) 
    Whitmire was the first female mayor of Houston, a seat she held from 1982 to 1992. She is a graduate of the University of Houston and served two terms at the city's controller. 
    Kathy Whitmire (1946 - ) 
    Whitmire was the first female mayor of Houston, a seat she held from 1982 to 1992. She is a graduate of the University of Houston and served two terms at the city's controller. 
    Photo: E. Joseph Deering, Houston Chronicle
    Image 7 of 47
    Barbara Jordan (1936 - 1996)
    Civil rights activist Barbara Jordan was the first woman ever elected to the Texas Senate. Later, Jordan was the first African-American congresswoman to come from Texas and the South, and she delivered the keynote address at the 1976 Democratic Convention. less
    Barbara Jordan (1936 - 1996)
    Civil rights activist Barbara Jordan was the first woman ever elected to the Texas Senate. Later, Jordan was the first African-American congresswoman to come from Texas and the ... more
    Photo: Tom Colburn
    Image 8 of 47
    Selena (1971 - 1995)
    The Queen of Tejano music, Selena Quintanillia Perez drew 61,041 people to her concert at the 1995 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo -- more than Clint Black, George Strait, Vince Gill, or Reba McEntire. less
    Selena (1971 - 1995)
    The Queen of Tejano music, Selena Quintanillia Perez drew 61,041 people to her concert at the 1995 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo -- more than Clint Black, George Strait, Vince Gill, or ... more
    Photo: Dave Einsel, Associated Press
    Image 9 of 47
    Janis Joplin (1943-1970)
    Born and raised in Port Arthur, Joplin began her music career in Austin but moved to San Francisco to escape the rigid cultural restrictions of 1960s Texas. Before she died at the age of 27, Joplin had carved a place for women in rock 'n' roll alongside Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix. She was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. less
    Janis Joplin (1943-1970)
    Born and raised in Port Arthur, Joplin began her music career in Austin but moved to San Francisco to escape the rigid cultural restrictions of 1960s Texas. Before she died at the age ... more
    Photo: Anonymous, HO
    Image 10 of 47
    Miriam A. "Ma" Ferguson (1875 – 1961)
    Before Ann Richards, there was Miriam A. Ferguson, the first woman governor of Texas. In all of Texas history, there have been two governors who were women: Ferguson and Richards. less
    Miriam A. "Ma" Ferguson (1875 – 1961)
    Before Ann Richards, there was Miriam A. Ferguson, the first woman governor of Texas. In all of Texas history, there have been two governors who were women: Ferguson and ... more
    Photo: KEYSTONE, Getty Images
    Image 11 of 47
    Sarah Weddington (1945 - ) 
    According to the New York Times, Weddington wanted to attend law school in part because an adviser at her small college in Abilene told her it would be too difficult for a woman. When she was 26 years old, she argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade, the landmark case that legalized abortion. Later, as a member of the Texas House of Representatives, she helped change a law that forbid women from getting credit cards in their name. She later became general counsel for the Department of Agriculture under President Jimmy Carter and now teaches at the University of Texas at Austin.   
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    Sarah Weddington (1945 - ) 
    According to the New York Times, Weddington wanted to attend law school in part because an adviser at her small college in Abilene told her it would be too difficult for a woman.
    ... more
    Photo: HARRY CABLUCK /AP
    Image 12 of 47
    Ann Richards (1933 - 2006)
    Richards is one of only two women to serve as governor of Texas. She delivered the keynote address the 1988 Democratic National Convention.
    Ann Richards (1933 - 2006)
    Richards is one of only two women to serve as governor of Texas. She delivered the keynote address the 1988 Democratic National Convention.
    Photo: Shelly Katz, Getty Images
    Image 13 of 47
    Beyonce Knowles-Carter (1981 - ) 
    Queen B went from performing at children's talent shows in Houston to becoming one of the world's most successful singer, songwriter and producer. Her musical pursuits started at Parker Elementary School, a music magnet school in Houston, and also at the High School for the Performing and Visual Arts. She started the band Destiny's Child before embarking on a solo career. She is one of the best-selling music artists of all time. 
    less
    Beyonce Knowles-Carter (1981 - ) 
    Queen B went from performing at children's talent shows in Houston to becoming one of the world's most successful singer, songwriter and producer. Her musical pursuits started
    ... more
    Photo: Jaguar PS | Shutterstock.com
    Image 14 of 47
    Angelina Eberly (1798-1860)
    An Austin innkeeper, Eberly got wind of Sam Houston’s plot to move the capitol of Texas by first taking the federal archives out of Austin. Eberly shot a canon to foil the plan, thus launching the Archive War. less
    Angelina Eberly (1798-1860)
    An Austin innkeeper, Eberly got wind of Sam Houston’s plot to move the capitol of Texas by first taking the federal archives out of Austin. Eberly shot a canon to foil the plan, ... more
    Photo: Wikimedia Commons
    Image 15 of 47
    Sen. Judith Zaffirini (1947 - ) is the first Mexican-American woman elected to the Texas Senate. Her most prominent legislative work has focused on immunization for children, suspension of licenses for drunk drivers and prevention of a nuclear waste dump in her district. She graduated the University of Texas at Austin and has been named among the "top 100 most influential Hispanics in the United States" by Hispanic Business magazine.  less
    Sen. Judith Zaffirini (1947 - ) is the first Mexican-American woman elected to the Texas Senate. Her most prominent legislative work has focused on immunization for children, suspension of licenses for drunk ... more
    Photo: Harry Cabluck
    Image 16 of 47
    Molly Ivins (1944 - 2007)
    Famous for her sharp, political humor, Ivins was an Austin-based widely syndicated newspaper columnist.
    Molly Ivins (1944 - 2007)
    Famous for her sharp, political humor, Ivins was an Austin-based widely syndicated newspaper columnist.
    Photo: CAROLYN MARY BAUMAN, STF
    Image 17 of 47
    Liz Carpenter (1920 - 2010)
    Carpenter wrote the statement that Lyndon B. Johnson delivered to the nation shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. She was the press secretary to Lady Bird Johnson and became known for her wry wit. Carpenter was also a founding member of the National Women’s Political Caucus. less
    Liz Carpenter (1920 - 2010)
    Carpenter wrote the statement that Lyndon B. Johnson delivered to the nation shortly after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. She was the press secretary to Lady Bird ... more
    Photo: Pictorial Parade, Getty Images
    Image 18 of 47
    Kalpana Chawla (1961-2003) - Born in Karnal, India, Chawla traveled to Texas for graduate school at the University of Texas at Arlington in 1982, earning a masters degree in aeronautical engineering. She would go on to earn a Ph.D. and her U.S. citizenship, before she entered NASA's astronaut training program in Houston in 1995, one of 19 candidates accepted from among almost 3,000 applicants. On her first space shuttle mission, Chawla wrote from space: "In the pre-sleep period, when you're looking out the window, you're floating. You see the continents go by, the thunderstorms shimmering in the clouds, the city lights at night. The Nile River looks like a lifeline in the Sahara. And we looked down on Mount Everest. Earth is very beautiful. I wish everyone could see it."

    She died on her second mission, when the space shuttle Columbia broke up over Texas as it re-entered Earth's atmosphere. 
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    Kalpana Chawla (1961-2003) - Born in Karnal, India, Chawla traveled to Texas for graduate school at the University of Texas at Arlington in 1982, earning a masters degree in aeronautical engineering. She would ... more
    Image 19 of 47
    Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911 - 1956)
    She’s the greatest Female Athlete of the first half of the 20th century, according to the Associated Press. At a time when female athletes were frowned upon, Zaharias mastered nearly every sport, from basketball to boxing. She qualified for five events in the 1932 Olympics. And while battling cancer, she won her third U.S. Women’s Open in golf and her sixth Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year award. less
    Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911 - 1956)
    She’s the greatest Female Athlete of the first half of the 20th century, according to the Associated Press. At a time when female athletes were frowned upon, Zaharias ... more
    Photo: Underwood Archives, Getty Images
    Image 20 of 47
    Almentris Duren (1910-2001) 
    Duren helped guide black students toward higher education in Texas at a time when society resisted their advancement. The U.S. Supreme Court ordered desegregation of schools in 1954, and Duren became housemother to the first black women allowed at the University of Texas at Austin. Soon she presided over a co-op on the school's campus, one of few places where black students could feel welcome at school at that time. Her writing remains required reading for UT orientation advisers, and a campus building now bears her name. 
    less
    Almentris Duren (1910-2001) 
    Duren helped guide black students toward higher education in Texas at a time when society resisted their advancement. The U.S. Supreme Court ordered desegregation of schools in
    ... more
    Image 21 of 47
    Ninfa Laurenzo (1924 - 2001) 
    Mama Ninfa turned a business making pizza dough and tortillas on Houston's south side into a multi-million dollar restaurant chain. She and her husband started the dough factory in 1948. When her husband died in 1969, she pressed on and started a small restaurant to help make ends meet in 1973. It only grew from there. Born in Harlingen, a few miles from the Mexican border, she became a symbol of entrepreneurial success for minorities in Houston.
    less
    Ninfa Laurenzo (1924 - 2001) 
    Mama Ninfa turned a business making pizza dough and tortillas on Houston's south side into a multi-million dollar restaurant chain. She and her husband started the dough factory in
    ... more
    Photo: Steve Ueckert, HC Staff
    Image 22 of 47
    Wilhelmina Delaco (1929 - ) 
    Delaco was the first woman appointed speaker pro tempore in the Texas House of Representatives in 1991. She said, "I realized how important it was for women and children, particularly, to walk in that House and see a woman in charge." 

    Her life in politics started as the first African-American elected to the Austin ISD board of trustees, where she helped accelerate school desegregation. She would serve 10 terms in the legislature and sit on more than 20 committees. 
    less
    Wilhelmina Delaco (1929 - ) 
    Delaco was the first woman appointed speaker pro tempore in the Texas House of Representatives in 1991. She said, "I realized how important it was for women and children,
    ... more
    Image 23 of 47
    Katherine Stinson Otero (1891-1977)
    She was the fourth woman to pilot an airplane and the first person to fly at night.
    Katherine Stinson Otero (1891-1977)
    She was the fourth woman to pilot an airplane and the first person to fly at night.
    Photo: William Luther /San Antonio Express-News
    Image 24 of 47
    Lila Cockrell (1922 - ) 
    Cockrell was the first female mayor of San Antonio, a post she held from 1975 to 1981. She also served with a women's emergency volunteer group in the U.S. Navy during World War II. Before taking the mayor's seat, she served on the San Antonio city council from 1963-1970 and from 1973-1975.
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    Lila Cockrell (1922 - ) 
    Cockrell was the first female mayor of San Antonio, a post she held from 1975 to 1981. She also served with a women's emergency volunteer group in the U.S. Navy during World War II.
    ... more
    Photo: Edward A. Ornelas, San Antonio Express-News
    Image 25 of 47
    Bessie Coleman (1892 - 1926)
    The first black woman to earn a pilot’s license, Coleman was a pioneer in aviation. She died in an accident at the age of 34.
    Bessie Coleman (1892 - 1926)
    The first black woman to earn a pilot’s license, Coleman was a pioneer in aviation. She died in an accident at the age of 34.
    Photo: Fotosearch, Getty Images
    Image 26 of 47
    Wendy Davis (1963 - ) 
    Davis was a member of the Texas Senate, famous for her 11-hour filibuster in 2013, which helped derail a proposed law to limit access to abortions in Texas (the law was passed during a subsequent special session). She then ran for governor and lost but remains active in the Democratic Party. 
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    Wendy Davis (1963 - ) 
    Davis was a member of the Texas Senate, famous for her 11-hour filibuster in 2013, which helped derail a proposed law to limit access to abortions in Texas (the law was passed during a
    ... more
    Image 27 of 47
    Bette Graham (1924-1980)
    Born and raised in San Antonio, she was the inventor and entrepreneur behind Liquid Paper white-out. That, and she raised a son, Michael Nesmith of the Monkeys.
    Bette Graham (1924-1980)
    Born and raised in San Antonio, she was the inventor and entrepreneur behind Liquid Paper white-out. That, and she raised a son, Michael Nesmith of the Monkeys.
    Photo: Wikimedia Commons
    Image 28 of 47
    Emma Tenayuca (1916-1999)
    Born and raised in San Antonio, Tenayuca was a worker on the picket line striking against the Fink Cigar Company when she was first arrested at the age of 16 in 1932. A fierce labor rights activist, Tenayuca led 12,000 San Antonio workers, mostly Hispanic women, in the Pecan-Shellers Strike of 1938 to fight wage cuts and dismal work conditions. A communist, she was blacklisted from San Antonio and could not return until the 1960s.  less
    Emma Tenayuca (1916-1999)
    Born and raised in San Antonio, Tenayuca was a worker on the picket line striking against the Fink Cigar Company when she was first arrested at the age of 16 in 1932. A fierce labor ... more
    Photo: Courtesy Photo /UTSA Special Collections
    Image 29 of 47
    Fannie Porter (1873 - 1940)
    A widely-known madam, Porter ran a popular brothel in San Antonio’s Sporting District. She is known to have entertained the notorious Wild Bunch, the gang led by Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. less
    Fannie Porter (1873 - 1940)
    A widely-known madam, Porter ran a popular brothel in San Antonio’s Sporting District. She is known to have entertained the notorious Wild Bunch, the gang led by Butch Cassidy and ... more
    Photo: "FanniePorter". Licensed Under PD-US Via Wikipedia - Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:FanniePorter.jpg#/media/File:FanniePorter.jpg
    Image 30 of 47
    Jane Long (1798-1880)
    Often referred to as the “mother of Texas,” Long is among the first English-speaking pioneers to give birth in Texas. Widowed at the age of 24, when her husband was killed in Mexico City, Long worked as a single mother, operating a boarding house and developing a plantation, which she ran with the aid of 19 slaves. less
    Jane Long (1798-1880)
    Often referred to as the “mother of Texas,” Long is among the first English-speaking pioneers to give birth in Texas. Widowed at the age of 24, when her husband was killed in Mexico ... more
    Photo: University Of North Texas Libraries
    Image 31 of 47
    Lottie Deno (1834 - 1944)
    Born Carlotta Thompkins, she won fame as Lottie Deno (short for dinero), one of the most well-known gamblers and poker players of her time. Known as the “Angel of San Antonio,” she was the house gambler of the University Club in the 1860s. less
    Lottie Deno (1834 - 1944)
    Born Carlotta Thompkins, she won fame as Lottie Deno (short for dinero), one of the most well-known gamblers and poker players of her time. Known as the “Angel of San Antonio,” she ... more
    Photo: Universal History Archive, Getty Images
    Image 32 of 47
    Sarah Bowman (c. 1813 – 1866) 
    Known as the Great Western, Bowman was a legendary camp follower during the Mexican War, tending to soldiers as a laundress, cook, hotelkeeper and prostitute. When she died after moving to Fort Yuma, she was buried with full military honors. less
    Sarah Bowman (c. 1813 – 1866) 
    Known as the Great Western, Bowman was a legendary camp follower during the Mexican War, tending to soldiers as a laundress, cook, hotelkeeper and prostitute. When she died ... more
    Photo: Wikimedia Commons
    Image 33 of 47
    Susana Dickinson (ca 1814-1883)
    The wife of a Texian defender, Dickinson and her daughter Angelina were among the few, if only, Americans who survived the Battle of the Alamo. With a blanket and $2, “the Lady of the Alamo” was sent to Gonzales with a message from Santa Ana to the Texians that he would crush any resistance. less
    Susana Dickinson (ca 1814-1883)
    The wife of a Texian defender, Dickinson and her daughter Angelina were among the few, if only, Americans who survived the Battle of the Alamo. With a blanket and $2, “the Lady ... more
    Photo: Wikimedia Commons
    Image 34 of 47
    Clara Driscoll (1881-1945)
    Dubbed the “Savior of the Alamo,” Driscoll was the businesswoman and philanthropist who first led the Daughters of the Republic of Texas to acquire and preserve the San Antonio de Valero Mission, known as the Alamo. less
    Clara Driscoll (1881-1945)
    Dubbed the “Savior of the Alamo,” Driscoll was the businesswoman and philanthropist who first led the Daughters of the Republic of Texas to acquire and preserve the San Antonio de ... more
    Photo: Courtesy University Of Texas.
    Image 35 of 47
    Adina De Zavala (1861-1955)
    A fierce preservationist of Texas history, De Zavala organized the Texas Historical and Landmarks Association, led conservation and renovation of the Spanish Governor's Palace and worked with Clara Driscoll to keep the Alamo from being razed for corporate development. less
    Adina De Zavala (1861-1955)
    A fierce preservationist of Texas history, De Zavala organized the Texas Historical and Landmarks Association, led conservation and renovation of the Spanish Governor's Palace and ... more
    Photo: COURTESY OF UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS
    Image 36 of 47
    Margaret Heffernan Borland (1824–1873)
    Borland took over her husband’s business as an independent rancher after he died and became the only woman known to have led a cattle drive. Buying and selling livestock, she grew the herd to more than 10,000 cattle. less
    Margaret Heffernan Borland (1824–1873)
    Borland took over her husband’s business as an independent rancher after he died and became the only woman known to have led a cattle drive. Buying and selling ... more
    Photo: Hero Images, Getty Images
    Image 37 of 47
    Hallie C. Stillwell (1897 - 1997)
    Before she died two months shy of her 100th birthday, Stillwell was one of the few women to ever lead a ranch in West Texas.
    Hallie C. Stillwell (1897 - 1997)
    Before she died two months shy of her 100th birthday, Stillwell was one of the few women to ever lead a ranch in West Texas.
    Photo: Getty Images
    Image 38 of 47
    Caro Crawford Brown, (1908 - 2001)
    She was first Texan and first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in reporting in 1955. She wrote series of articles exposing the virulent corruption of political boss George Parr; it was her fearless reporting that led to his eventual downfall. Brown was inducted into the Texas Women's Hall of Fame in 1986. less
    Caro Crawford Brown, (1908 - 2001)
    She was first Texan and first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in reporting in 1955. She wrote series of articles exposing the virulent corruption of political boss George ... more
    Photo: The History Center
    Image 39 of 47
    Katherine Anne Porter (1890 – 1980)
    Because the University of Texas refused to name a library or even a room after the Texas writer who earned a Gold Medal for Fiction, the Pulitzer Prize, and the National Book Award, Porter left her letters, library and personal memorabilia to the University of Maryland. less
    Katherine Anne Porter (1890 – 1980)
    Because the University of Texas refused to name a library or even a room after the Texas writer who earned a Gold Medal for Fiction, the Pulitzer Prize, and the National ... more
    Photo: Hulton Archive, Getty Images
    Image 40 of 47
    Bonnie Parker (1911 -1934)
    Born in Rowena, the notorious outlaw was hunted by law enforcement for years before she and her boyfriend Clyde Barrow were gunned down in Louisiana when she was 23. The duo, now known as Bonnie and Clyde, went on a years-long rampage of murders and robberies across Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Missouri.
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    Bonnie Parker (1911 -1934)
    Born in Rowena, the notorious outlaw was hunted by law enforcement for years before she and her boyfriend Clyde Barrow were gunned down in Louisiana when she was 23. The duo, now known
    ... more
    Photo: Getty Images
    Image 41 of 47
    Claudia Alva Taylor "Lady Bird" Johnson (1912-2007) 
    Johnson pushed the limits of the role of first lady, interacting directly with Congress, making solo speaking tours and setting a new standard of expectations for her predecessors. A cunning businesswoman and investor, she contributed crucially to the success of her husband, helping run his campaigns and running the finances. She also preached a more beautiful America, promoting successful legislation to limit clutter beside American highways and encouraging cultivation of wild flowers.  
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    Claudia Alva Taylor "Lady Bird" Johnson (1912-2007) 
    Johnson pushed the limits of the role of first lady, interacting directly with Congress, making solo speaking tours and setting a new standard of
    ... more
    Photo: Copyright Photo David Kennedy
    Image 42 of 47
    Oveta Culp Hobby(1905 - 1995) 
    Born in Killeen, Hobby left her post as the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1955 to return to Houston to head up the Houston Post as president and editor. Soon she became chairman of the board of directors of the Bank of Texas. That was the tail end of a long career in business and politics, which also saw her work on a Houston mayor's campaign, work as the city attorney, and as head of the Women's Interest Section at the War Department (now Department of Defense) during WWII. She was married to Texas governor and Houston icon William Hobby.    

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    Oveta Culp Hobby (1905 - 1995) 
    Born in Killeen, Hobby left her post as the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare in 1955 to return to Houston to head up the Houston Post as
    ... more
    Photo: handout
    Image 43 of 47
    Dale Evans (1912 - 2001) 
    Born in Uvalde, Evans became a successful singer and actress before making her big break as co-star to cowboy actor Roy Rogers in the 1944 film The Cowboy and the Señorita. Afterwards the pair married and made 27 more films together. The couple adopted four orphaned children, and went on to produce The Roy Rogers Show, which ran 1950-1957 and was an international hit. 
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    Dale Evans (1912 - 2001) 
    Born in Uvalde, Evans became a successful singer and actress before making her big break as co-star to cowboy actor Roy Rogers in the 1944 film The Cowboy and the Señorita. Afterwards
    ... more
    Photo: Loomis Dean, Time & Life Pictures/Getty Image
    Image 44 of 47
    Henrietta King (1832 - 1925) 
    King wore widow's black for the last 40 years of her life after her husband, Richard King, died and left her alone with her daughter on the South Texas frontier. She ran the ranch her husband left, learning the folkways of the Mexican ranch hands and speaking primarily Spanish. With the help of her son-in-law, she bred a new cattle suited to the Texas heat and expanded the ranch--King Ranch--into the biggest on the continent. 
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    Henrietta King (1832 - 1925) 
    King wore widow's black for the last 40 years of her life after her husband, Richard King, died and left her alone with her daughter on the South Texas frontier. She ran the ranch
    ... more
    Image 45 of 47
    Kay Bailey Hutchison (1943 - )
    Hutchinson was the first Texas woman in the U.S. Senate. Before that, she was Houston's first female TV reporter, starting in 1967. Her career took her through the Texas House of Representatives, the administration of President Gerald Ford, a seat as the Texas state treasurer and eventually a seat in the U.S. Senate, from which she retired in 2012.  
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    Kay Bailey Hutchison (1943 - )
    Hutchinson was the first Texas woman in the U.S. Senate. Before that, she was Houston's first female TV reporter, starting in 1967. Her career took her through the Texas House of
    ... more
    Photo: Hillery Smith Garrison, The Associated Press
    Image 46 of 47
    Kelly Clarkson (1982 - ), 
    The singer born in Fort Worth, shot to fame when she won the first season of "American Idol" in 2002. She'd sung in school choirs since middle school and starred in musical performances through her teenage years. She declined offers to go to college, opting to pursue music instead. She recorded some albums and went to Los Angeles but never made a multi platinum album until her triumph on the landmark reality TV show.
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    Kelly Clarkson (1982 - ), 
    The singer born in Fort Worth, shot to fame when she won the first season of "American Idol" in 2002. She'd sung in school choirs since middle school and starred in musical
    ... more
    Photo: Victoria Will, INVL
    Image 47 of 47
    These Texas women helped shape America
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    Hillary Clinton marked a milestone in equality Thursday night when she accepted the presidential nomination of the Democratic Party.

    It showed how far the country has come since the days when men kept women out of every statehouse and forbid them from voting. There was a time when the cultural consensus held that women were bound by their gender to stay at home; that most jobs worth dreaming of — doctor, astronaut, president — were the sole domain of men.

    READ MORE: Hillary Clinton's historic moment a long time coming

    Yet the record holds that women in the Lone Star State have long fought for a better future, unacknowledged and disenfranchised though they may have been. They did so, their stories show, despite constant doubt from many elders, who passed down assumptions about limitations of being female.

    Today, many barriers are coming down, thanks to examples set by women like Clinton who disprove old notions of gender roles.

    READ MORE: Women's suffrage movement

    Click through our gallery to see some of the Texas women, past and present, who fought the odds to take the reigns of the future.

    Original Source